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    What is Web of Causation of Disease?

    The web of causation is used to describe the complexity, interconnectedness, and interdependence of factors that contribute to health and well-being. The web of causation differs from the traditional biomedical model in that it includes social, psychological, behavioural, and environmental factors. These are often referred to as ‘upstream’ determinants of health because they lie upstream of an individual’s biology.

    The World Health Organization describes the web of causation model as follows:

    “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”

    World Health Organization, 1948

    What is a causal web in epidemiology?

    Answer: A causal web in epidemiology is the relationship between exposures and outcomes. It shows how one event (exposure) may lead to another event (outcome) by affecting, intervening, or being caused by other factors. The web helps identify which exposures are most important for preventing disease.

    What is the wheel of causation?

    Answer: The wheel of causation is a model that illustrates the complex web of interactions between factors that can lead to disease. It shows how different factors (such as lifestyle, genetics, and environment) can interact to create a potential for disease.

    The wheel of causation is used by public health officials and researchers to identify which factors are most important in causing a particular disease so that they can develop strategies to prevent or reduce the risk of disease.

    Determinants of Health

    The idea that a person’s health is determined by a wide range of factors has been recognized in various forms throughout history. For example, the ancient Egyptians believed that good health was governed by a balance between the different bodily ‘humours’ – blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm.

    The modern idea of a web of causation developed in 1972 at a Harvard conference on primary health care. The meeting brought together a group of public health specialists from around the World to discuss how global inequalities could be addressed.

    One of the outcomes of this meeting was a consensus that individuals’ health is determined by a wide range of factors – not just their biology – and that it is more helpful to think about health as an ongoing process rather than a summary term. This new perspective led to the idea that good health is best expressed as ‘the general ability to adapt and fully engage in life’.

    The term ‘web of causation’ was coined by the American public health physician Stan Cohen, one of the participants at the Harvard conference. Stan Cohen described how it can be useful for public health practitioners to recognize that people are not merely passive victims of forces beyond their control, particularly when people are being blamed for their own health problems.

    The web of causation is now frequently used in public health to describe the complex interplay of factors that determine how individuals can be healthy, and why some populations suffer poor health compared to others. The model recognizes that there are many influencing factors on individual health which lie beyond the person, and also that aspects of health can be influenced by individuals themselves.

    In contrast, the biomedical model of the disease focuses on the biology of an individual to explain their symptoms, whereas a web of causation approach looks at myriad factors influencing individual health which often lie beyond their direct control. These additional factors include social influences such as poverty, employment, and family circumstances; physical environments which are built around the needs of industry not individuals; lack of opportunities to make healthy choices in areas such as access to fresh fruit and vegetables in poor neighborhoods, or safe places for children to play.

    As such, it forms part of a prevention approach as opposed to diagnosing and treating disease once it has arisen. This can be described as proactive vs. reactive.

    The concept was developed by Professor A.R. Neugarten in the 1960s, supporting the notion that most people are not sick or unwell most of the time but that there is a web of causation underlying health and illness.

    The web of causation forms part of an ecological model which focuses on relationships between individuals, their social environment, and how they manage problems. web of causation public health should be examined

    The web of causation is a framework that enables assessment of the different factors in an individual’s life which can impact their health and well-being. It also illustrates how these factors are interrelated. The model acknowledges the complexity of human social structures, showing them to be composed of systems, structures, organisations, and relationships. This allows for an understanding of how individual and collective actions produce effects, both positive and negative.

    The web of causation is a preventive approach that functions to ensure health and well-being for all people. It also functions as a diagnostic tool allowing the identification of problems in order to promote change. As such, it is used alongside other tools such as the strengths perspective.

    The web of causation includes the following components:

    Individual factors include genetic makeup, personality traits and values, lifestyle behaviours (diet, exercise), psychological conditions (anxiety, stress), and social networks. These are web of causation example.

    This component is perhaps one of the most important elements in the web of causation model; it acknowledges that people are interconnected and not isolated from the influence of those around them. The impact upon health might be positive or negative, but it is clear that no person exists in a social vacuum.

    Social structural factors include concepts such as poverty, unemployment, and housing conditions. They determine access to education, recreation facilities, and medical services among other things.

    Organisational components include the nature of community and workplace, as well as family structures.

    The concept of resources includes material, social and human resources that are available to support health and well-being.

    Health system factors include access to services, quality of care, and allocation of resources.

    Put simply: What do we need? Where can we get it from? How can we best use it to our advantage? web of causation Wikipedia?

    Criticisms of the Web of Causation

    The web of causation is, however, an old approach that has its critics. Of particular concern are the following:

    There are many other factors that influence health and well-being which cannot be included in the web of causation model. One example would be climate conditions. This illustrates how a multi-disciplinary approach is required to fully understand human health and well-being.

    So, the web of causation model still has a place in our understanding of how humans function within their environment. However, it does not offer a comprehensive explanation of the forces that influence health and well-being.

    Despite its limitations, the web of causation model remains a useful tool for understanding how people relate to their social and physical environments. web of causation ppt from web of causation CDC.

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