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    What is Spradley’s Change Theory

    What is Spradley’s Change Theory?

    It is a theory of explanation for the process of change that helps explain how we become different people throughout our lives and why we do so.

    “The process by which individuals or groups change, intentionally or unintentionally, in some respect(s) from one stage of development to another.”

    Change is a part of everyone’s life experience. People change in some way throughout their lives, but under what influences do these changes take place? Spradley’s Change Theory provides an explanation for the process of change and variation among humans. He believes that there are four stages people pass through on their way to becoming “fully socialized” members of their own culture. What does that mean? While no one is ever fully socialized, people tend to adhere to certain norms in society. When you go out into the world and work as an adult, or perhaps even as a student, you follow certain rules and restrictions on your behavior so as not to offend people. For example, you may not curse in the classroom if your professor tells you it is inappropriate for his/her curriculum. You might even be ostracized by your peers if they found out that you did this and did not learn to follow along with what people expect from you and society at large. However, the point of Spradley’s Change Theory is to explain how, why, and what circumstances influence each person’s development of socially acceptable behavior.

    What are the four stages of human change as understood via Spradley’s change theory?

    ·          Conformity

    o          “Believing that the values, attitudes, beliefs, and actions of other people are right.”

    ·          Independence

    o          “Believing that the values, attitudes, beliefs, and actions of other people are neither right nor wrong but are something for each person to decide for himself or herself.”

    o    Also not fully socialized, but believes in the ability to make decisions on individual behavior without censure from society

    ·          Differentiation

    o    “Believed that there are two kinds of people in the world: those who are like himself/herself and those who are not.”

    o    A person who typically sees the world in black and white with no grays

    ·          Interdependence

    o    “Belief that there are three kinds of people in the world: those who are like himself/herself, those who are not, and those who are sometimes one and sometimes the other.”

    o    A mature person who has a well-rounded view of the world and those in it. This is the “fully socialized” person that most adults become as they progress from childhood to adulthood with an even further developed sense of self that allows them to exist within society without feeling alienated or ostracized by it.

    How do we become different?

    ·          We all go through these four stages of development, but under what circumstances and influences does this process take place? It occurs in the context of a person’s life experiences, including family life, relationships with peers, culture shock experienced when moving from one environment to another, and so on. In other words, people change as a result of exposure to both their immediate environment and society at large.

    ·          Conformity – being shaped by others’ influence- Spradley’s change theory

                 Family-person has a strong sense of self that may be repressed by the values taught by his/her family

                Peers-person has a strong sense of self and is influenced by his/her peers

                 Culture Shock-person has a strong sense of self, but it is challenged upon changing environments

                 Differentiation–being shaped by experience as per Spradley’s change theory

    o    Person with no previous experiences to anchor him or herself in the world returns to his or her family

                 Family-person has a strong sense of self that is shaped by his/her own experiences

                 Peers-person takes on the values, beliefs, and attitudes of his/her peers

                 Culture Shock- person with a weak sense of self is shaped by the experience of culture shock

    o        Person with no previous experiences to draw from returns to his/her family for comfort

                 Family-person is shaped by the values taught by his/her family but tries to become more independent while maintaining that loose affiliation with his/her peers

                 Peers- person’s sense of self remains strong, but he or she takes on the values, beliefs, and attitudes of their peers

                 Culture Shock- a person with a weak sense of self begins to construct his/her own experiences in the world

    o    Differentiation- adult who has experienced different scenarios is shaped by them

                 Family- person has a strong sense of self that may be challenged upon return to the family

                 Peers- person has a strong sense of self but is influenced by his/her peers

                 Culture Shock- person with a weak sense of self becomes more worldly and takes on the values, beliefs, and attitudes from these experiences

                 Independence – adult who has been shaped well by experience assumes a strong sense of self and makes decisions without censure from society

    ·          Differentiation, which is the end goal for this process, occurs when a person has experienced enough that he/she can build his/her own set of values and set out on their own path in life. This does not mean that as an independent adult he/she ceases relationships with his/her family or friends, but it does mean that he/she is able to make decisions without the influence of others.

    ·          The process from conformity to differentiation is a slow one, and there are many reasons why this process may not even take place. Some people simply never experience necessary events in life, such as culture shock, which allows them to find themselves and become their own people. Individuals who do not develop independence may lack the ability to make decisions on their own and thus need external sources for guidance and direction.

    ·          Though it is irrelevant in terms of human psychology, we should note that gender has no bearing on this process. Both men and women go through the process of conformity, differentiation, and independence. It is simply a matter of what the individual is exposed to as he/she lives his/her life.

    ·          Though we have gone into detail about this topic in class and it has been mentioned throughout our textbook readings, we should note that the conformity, differentiation, independence model has not been researched extensively. There are some psychologists who believe the process does not occur in this order, while others believe that there is more to it than what we have stated here. Either way, these steps are an integral part of human development, and all of this information will connect with our readings for the rest of the semester.

    ·          A few key terms and concepts that will be important to remember during our readings on this topic:

    o    Ambiguity- the state of not having enough information to make a decision

    o    Conformity- the process by which an individual takes on the values, beliefs, and attitudes of those around

    We hope we have helped you understand Spradley’s change theory. Our writers are available to write more for you on Spradley’s change theory if you place your order now.

    Other questions we may help you to answer include:

    What is Organisational change theory?

    What is lewin’s change theory nursing essay?

    What is Havelock’s theory of change?

    among other change theories in nursing

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