Posted: January 14th, 2023

Virtual Simulation Technology Proposal Essay example

Virtual Simulation Technology Proposal Essay example

Virtual Simulation Technology Proposal

 Executive Summary

The integration of technology with nursing education came as strategy to  meet  training needs  at a time when  there was a significant shortage of  sites to conduct clinical trials  while demonstrating  a  continuous approach  to meet  the demands of highly trained and qualified personnel, prepared to deliver quality care. Across the globe, healthcare deliver   continues to become ICT driven Virtual Simulation Technology Proposal Essay example. Digital learning is not only growing  in popularity  but also in its utilization, with  creative ways of engaging  learners  to acquire, manage, and utilize knowledge. The integration of technology in nursing education guarantees learners with several advantages such as; improved clinical reasoning, knowledge retention, ease of access and user flexibility.


The author conducted a systematic methodological needs assessment to identify   the gaps that existed in knowledge and skills between current and proposed education practices. The author used a structured survey to obtain information from stakeholders. The findings demonstrated that the introduction and integration of a new form of technology; Laerdal Medical,  to nursing education through a change in the curriculum can significantly influence the clinical reasoning, knowledge retention, critical thinking, and decision-making of students. Laerdal Medical will not only be beneficial to learners, but will also promote the faculty and organizations’ effort to attain its mission vision, and goals.

To ensure that learner’ needs were adequately addressed and guaranteed higher success rates through  the most current, standard, and evidence-based  teaching methods, the author obtained stakeholder insights in regards to the implementation of Laerdal Medical platform.





Virtual Simulation Technology Proposal

Advancements in Healthcare Information Technology (HIT) influence healthcare systems across the globe. Private and public healthcare organizations in the US   have incorporated IT in in varying degrees in service delivery, starting with automated systems for hospitalization, to computerized medical equipment, and EHRs for stock control. Nursing is a critical component of the healthcare system. According to Bradshaw, Hultquist, & Hagler (2020), efficient and effective utilization of IT depends on nurses’ skills, knowledge, and attitude towards IT.          In the last decade, nursing schools have responded to the IOM (Institute of Medicine) and AACN (American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) calls to increase the safety of patients through nursing IT. by integrating IT systems in the learning-teaching environment. Today, most nursing programs have also embraced e learning to enable nursing students study remotely.

IT is a valuable and powerful tool to support learning. Its integration in nursing education provides instructors with innovative learning and teaching strategies to promote active participation of nursing students in the learning process. Conklin & Bove (2021) highlight that although it has several benefits, organizational, financial, and technological challenges are also a reality. Financial constraints and poor infrastructure can result in impaired learning, disappointment, and resistance to the acquisition of IT skills in nursing education. Inadequate supervision and training in IT can make learners to feel overwhelmed. Due to the increasing utilization of technology in the delivery of healthcare services, it is important to ensure that nurse leaners   are highly competent to utilize IT   in clinical settings upon graduation.  In this change proposal, the author recommends the integration of virtual simulation technology in a new curriculum of nurses as an attempt to meet their training needs. The integration of IT in nursing education   has proven to guarantee the success of learners, to enhance the learning experience, and improve learning outcomes.

Literature Review (B)

Credible Sources

Please refer to Appendix A: Table 1. Literature Review Summary Table

Sources Summary

The author conducted a search for literature for articles between January 2016 and December 2021 in the electronic databases of Medline, PubMed, EbcoHost, and CINAHL using the keywords; nursing education, virtual, technology, and simulation, yielding 32 articles. The author applied an inclusion criterion of articles within the past 5 years, and those that only discussed about the integration of virtual simulation technology in nursing education. Only seven articles met the criterion from which the author selected five for the literature review. In this section, the author reviews literature on the use of technology in education and identifies gaps in using technology in nursing education. The common themes consistent across literature were:

According to Shin et al., (2019), effective learning and teaching incorporates the participation of learners, structured mechanisms of education, summative and formative evaluations. Presently, most education programs focus on learner-centered paradigms. These paradigms base on constructivism, experiential, and active learning. It is with this orientation that virtual simulation in education evolved, which positions the engagement of learners as a critical factor of successful education. In nursing education, experts introduced simulation methods to help in training in clinical practice. In motivation, communication, self-learning, and problem solving, simulation methods appear to be very effective. However, potential barriers related to time, a high cost of manikins, and, the labor-intensive nature of simulation has prompted most nurse faculties   to resort to virtual simulation as an alternative. Virtual simulation is easy to implement, is cost-effective, and enhances the experiences of learners. Shin et al., (2019) found three factors that inspired the engagement of learners in virtual simulation to attain learning outcomes; affordance, immersion, and presence. In practice, the implementers can utilize the strategies of interaction, representation, platform, algorithm, and modeling to address the aforementioned characteristics. General simulation characteristics were; teaching method, theoretical framework, debriefing method, simulation feedback, outcome, and scenario. Active-learning strategies such as case-based, problem–based, and team-based are the most effective and frequently used in virtual simulation since they center on learner engagement.

Chen et al., (2020) conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) on nursing education in regards to skills, knowledge, performance time, satisfaction, and confidence. The researchers acknowledge that, with the continuous advancement of VR technology, nursing education has undergone significant transformations and continues to become increasingly affordable. Instructors have used VR to teach several concepts in nursing such as decision-making, leadership, critical thinking, communication, disaster triage, and inclusivity. Simulations using VR provides learners with the opportunity to practice skills in a safe environment, which eliminates risks to patients. For knowledge, compared to traditional education methods, VR is more effective since it promotes a highly interactive learning environment, which encourages learners to connect between concepts. For skills, satisfaction, and confidence, VR education methods have minimal to no significant impact. A significant reason for this outcome is the existence of a potential gap between real practice and completion of virtual cases. Due to the immaturity of VR technology, the nursing skills that learners obtain from virtual platforms may not be transferable to practical situations. Besides, learners’ satisfaction can differ based on technical conditions and technologies used. Since VR cannot smoothly transfer the skills learned via VR education methods to real situations, it decreases the confidence levels of its users.

Díaz et al., (2021) compared differences in the outcomes between virtual simulation and high-fidelity Manikin-Based groups (HFPS). There were differences in knowledge acquisition, which indicated the significance of first determining the efficiency, cost-effeteness, convenience, and efficacy of replacing face-to-face clinical hours with HFPS as nursing programs continue to integrate simulation and technology in the nursing curriculum. In clinical practice, if nursing programs should integrate virtual simulation to nursing education, the nurse faculty must acquire numerous facilitators, use consistent simulation methods, with standardized methods. Replacing clinical practice with virtual simulation promotes the exposure of nursing learners to large populations, and different patient populations. By caring for virtual patients, this opportunity allows learners to gain the much-needed experience with little to no negative impact on learner’s outcomes. At times of limited practicum sites or during public health crises, demonstrations for specific specialties such as obstetrics and pediatrics that compare placement in different clinical settings are important.

According to Padilha et al., (2019), the integration of technology in nursing education has availed high-fidelity simulators, which have influenced changes in the paradigm of health education by improving how learners acquire skills and knowledge, while strengthening safety and quality in practice. Virtual simulation improves   the retention of knowledge, clinical reasoning, and learners’ satisfaction, without jeopardizing efficiency. As a pedagogical strategy, that fits the learning ways and expectations of nursing curriculum, nurse instructors can combine virtual simulation with strategies such as briefing and debriefing to improve the retention of knowledge and clinical reasoning of the 21st generation nursing students in nursing education.

In a pilot study to compare outcomes with DCE (Digital Clinical Experiences) to written case studies, Turrise, Thompson & Hepler, (2020) used a randomized design to evaluate of the confidence, critical thinking, and satisfaction levels of twenty-seven RN-BSN nursing students enrolled in an online pathophysiology-pharmacology course. The researchers acknowledge the use of virtual simulation to provide nurse learners with opportunities to interact with virtual and computerized patients and experience real-life clinical scenarios. Virtual simulation equips learners with clinical reasoning, decision-making skills, communication, and motor control skills. In nursing, critical thinking   is a mandatory for clinical and diagnostic reasoning. Virtual simulation increases learners’ clinical reasoning based on needs by allowing them to apply evidence-based decision making to manage virtual patients, to formulate diagnoses, and help with clinical reasoning. However, when using virtual simulation, nurse instructors must emphasize about learning from mistakes, communication, formative assessments, and self-assessments. In the learning process, nurse instructors can allow students to use virtual patient case studies and reflect on their experiences. A perfect example in this category is the Shadow Health DCE, which allows immersive interaction and experience with standard patients digitally through a conversation engine.

Knowledge Gaps (B3)

Some studies, particularly meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and randomized controlled trials that evaluate the impact of virtual reality on nursing education outcomes use very few studies or sample groups albeit with varying interventions. Other studies fail to describe blinding methods, and issues related to allocation concealment and sequence generation (Chen et al., 2020). This ultimately affects the heterogeneity of the results and creates a gap in knowledge as to whether researchers and educators can apply the findings of these studies to wider populations.

There exists a gap in knowledge on the ethical considerations for learners using virtual simulation. Most studies that seek to evaluate the integration of technology or virtual simulation in nursing education do not use theoretical frameworks or rather address ethical considerations. Instead, researchers use structured frameworks and rarely consider human participants and their overall mental health, including warnings, safety procedures, and devices (Shin et al., 2019).  Information on the ethics of using virtual reality and its approval to do so is crucial since just as entertainment property, can result in ethical issues related to doubts, addiction, and confusion.

Although virtual simulation increases the feasibility of the classroom context, widens the scenarios available digitally, and influences a reduction in simulation costs per student (Padilha et al., 2019), educators are yet to establish whether it particularly influences long-term knowledge retention as most studies use shorter durations during follow-up. In the study by Turrise, Thompson & Hepler (2020), the researchers used a very short time frame to evaluate outcomes among participants. This leaves a gap in knowledge as to whether there the time-frame duration has an influence on   learners’ ability to improve their critical thinking skills while using virtual simulation. In the study by Díaz et al., (2021), the researchers conducted a pretest and posttest within one week, which was perhaps a very short duration to capture knowledge retention.

Needs Assessment (C1)

Need-Gap Analysis

In an ever-changing industry where there are new technologies being invented and a nursing curriculum that keeps being restructured, there is need for a methodological approach that will ensure the achievement of a situation whereby the emerging technology will be integrated into the current curriculum (Foronda & Bauman, 2014). The integration of the new technology will help the learners to effortlessly transition from learners into highly trained practitioners to meet the patient expectations. A system that is both systematic and methodological is required, to identify whether the current and proposed technology meet learning activities. This process will help to ascertain whether the existing capabilities within the curriculum are effective and to identify gaps between the required and existing modality.

The author will conduct a survey among stakeholders to inquire enquiring about current practices, knowledge, skills, barriers, gaps, needs and best practices compared to the target outcomes post-implementation of the proposed technology. This knowledge and information is critical to identifying existing gaps and developing effective measures to bridge the gaps, while making the learning process more beneficial.


The alignment of key stakeholders results in decisions that are more precise and effective. This therefore means that stakeholders play a direct role in determining the processes and addressing challenges. Stakeholders act in the interest of learners and the institution. To meet this purpose, they must perform an environment and population needs assessment of their population of focus through activities such as preparing policies, which will make it easier to achieve desired outcomes. The alignment of stakeholders plays a critical role in ensuring that the proposed curriculum changes are applied and that the learning process is more effective. Assessing how open the organization is to changes is the first step in the stakeholder alignment process. When all of the stakeholders agree on the proposed changes, then the team involved can initiate the processes that will result in curriculum changes.


The role of the administration in analyzing the existing gaps is in overseeing the bureaucratic processes that will result in the achievement of the desired outcomes. The administration is also responsible for making financial decisions, which determine whether there are adequate funds to support the implementation of the proposed project.

Nurse Educators

Their main role is providing insights on the curriculum implementation process. Given their role in the implementation of the proposed changes, their knowledge and experience will be heavily relied on to ensure that the changes are smoothly applied, making the project more successful. According to McFarlan, O’Brien & Simmons (2019),they should also be involved so that they will buy into the idea before its implementation, and to reduce resistance to change.


The learners will provide insights into the effectiveness of the current teaching modalities, and the areas that newer technologies and teaching methods should focus on. Learners better positioned to propose the current technology that may work best with them, hence making the implementation process easier. Given the learners’ difference in age, and technology skills, the evaluators will assess outcomes such as knowledge retention and within a specified period to ensure that the project attains its objectives.

Information Technology Specialists

Their main role in the curriculum change is to give insights on the proposed technological changes including the softwares to purchase, other IT resources needed.  They will provide support in implementation and maintenance. They will also take part in training stakeholders (students and educators) who will be using the proposed technology and continuous support during learning.

Staff Developers

They are supposed to ensure that nursing educators will achieve cohesion in the process of aligning the technology to the curriculum. They will also assist in the implementation process, by training educators that may not be adept to the proposed technology so that they can be able to utilize it in their teaching activities. Staff developers play a critical role in ensuring the smooth transitioning of the teaching process from a traditional one into a technology-based one.

Methods of Collaboration

Communication is the first step through which effective collaboration will be undertaken. The management will provide all stakeholders with evidence-based data that to convince them on the need for the changes so that they can become more open-minded towards taking part in the implementation of the desirable changes. The Interprofessional team also plays the critical role of communicating and collaborating with other stakeholders to attain the shared goal. Constant communication, both physically and via different platforms needs to be undertaken, ensuring that the team is on the same page and working towards the set goals at all times.

Weekly Meetings

Weekly meetings will ensure that the Interprofessional team is constantly in touch with each other, therefore making the goals more achievable. The meetings will hold the stakeholders responsible for their actions and correct any negative outcomes before they worsen. In-person and online meetings can be held, as long as the attendees are available and take part. During the weekly meetings, different stakeholders will present their ideas and strategies to collaborate the ideas with other stakeholders in an attempt to atain the overall goal. The Interprofessional team will provide insights into the proposals and look for ways of making the proposals more effective and applicable to the issues at hand. Weekly meetings will also be used to touch base and answer any questions that the stakeholders may have, resulting in the achievement of positive outcomes in the different endeavors undertaken. Open communication during such meetings will foster trust and the likelihood of the stakeholders being more motivated to work towards the achievement of the set goals.

Tech Tools/Emails

For stakeholders to communicate with each other, making the processes more successful in the process will use technological tools such as emails through which the management can hold them accountable. Through technologies such as Google Documents, it will be easier for the stakeholders to view the progress made and give their input on the changes that could result in better outcomes. The implementation team can also use tech tools to update, encourage, and motivate each other, resulting in continued contribution and commitment of involved stakeholders.

Current Technologies

Table 2

Curriculum Technology Need-Gap Analysis

Current Curriculum


Desired Curriculum Technology Need-Gap Action Steps to Meet the Need-Gap
Textbook and printed journal articles Zoom for education virtual meetings, webinars, conferences, and messaging. Zoom for education training for entire institution and learners. 1.      Purchase Zoom for Education software

2.      Information Technology Specialist training

3.      Institution wide training

4.      Learner training

5.      Annual zoom for education trainings for institution

Textbook and printed journal articles Laerdal Medical platform for evidence- based learning through virtual simulations, test banks, flipped classroom features, blended learning, and valuable study resources Laerdal Medical platform products and training

Need for simulations for real life experiences in safe environment.

Does not foster interdisciplinary team collaboration

Does not promote critical thinking

1.      Purchase Laerdal Medical platform

2.      Information Technology Specialist training

3.      Institution wide training

4.      Learner training

5.      Annual Laerdal Medical platform trainings for institution

Zoom vs. Laerdal Medical platform

Technology-based learning may be accomplished via the use of Zoom, which is a more effective e-learning environment. The faculty will use zoom to create an interactive learning environment that is comparable to the ones seen in real classrooms. With the Laerdal Medical Platform, stakeholders may access learning materials and aid the learning process in a more efficient, standardized, and more successful manner than they could before. Despite the fact that both platforms are distinct, they both offer identical services. Zoom has a number of benefits over other e-learning platforms, one of which is that it enhances learning while increasing the contacts between professors and students. In addition to its virtual and hybrid classroom capabilities, affordability, and emergency preparedness, Zoom offers several benefits that help it to become the most chosen online learning platform worldwide. In comparison , one of the benefits of utilizing Laerdal Medical platforms, is that it gives access to evidence-based learning resources, ensuring that learners are exposed to the most up-to-date, validated, and authorized content available on the market. Another benefit of Laerdal Medical platforms is that it provides a uniform curriculum, which assures that users of varying backgrounds can grasp the curriculum and get the desired results from it. Learning outcomes and competence and completion reports are provided at the conclusion of each lesson to ensure that the learners have fulfilled the learning objectives in a satisfactory manner. When utilizing Laerdal Medical platforms, it is possible to access virtual simulations as well, which makes the learning process more effective and ensures the accomplishment of the desired learning results more quickly. While both platforms strive to make virtual learning more accessible to students, their techniques to doing so are somewhat different. While Zoom is primarily concerned with the creation of a virtual class in which learners and instructors may engage directly, Laerdal Medical platforms are primarily concerned with the sharing of learning materials without direct contact between learners and instructors. Although both platforms have different goals, they both strive to guarantee that learners get the desired learning results.

A same flaw plagues both the Zoom and Laerdal Medical systems. They both need that the learners have access to learning materials such as technology gadgets and an internet connection in order for the learning process to take place. Additionally, both systems need the participation of stakeholders in training sessions to get acquainted with the platforms. In contrast to zoom, the Laerdal Medical platform requires ongoing online service and maintenance, which is a significant drawback for the company.

Technology Challenges

The current technology is inadequate due to lack of innovative and modernized technological changes. While traditional learning processes have been successful, they can become more successful when integrated with technology, which prompts the need for the suggested technological advancement. The saturation of the content in the training and learning processes means that more effective measures have to be used, hence making it easier to convert the theoretical aspects into practical outcomes. Technology also influences the learning environments with positive learner outcomes. Some of the challenges include the costs of purchasing textbooks, the size of the learning materials among other limitations associated with the used learning materials.

Cost of Textbooks

The learners may be unable to afford the textbooks used, hence reducing the access to the learning materials and other necessary materials to be used throughout the course.

Size of the Textbooks

The big size of the textbooks may make the learning process cumbersome, especially when the learners have to travel long distances to and from the classrooms.

Limitations of the Textbooks and Journals

Using textbooks and journals locks out learners who embrace other learning styles, decreasing the usefulness of the learning process.

Overcoming the Challenges

To overcome the highlighted challenges, the implementation team must effectively execute the implementation process throughout the course. For instance, the use of the Laerdal Medical Platforms provides positive learner outcomes through the improvement of the learning process and the enhancement of the curricula used in the institutions in question.

The Cost of the Textbooks

The high costs of education already burden learners and asking them to spend more in the purchase of expensive textbooks only makes the learning process more expensive. Embracing technology in the learning process makes learning more affordable, and provides ease access to learning materials.

The Size of the Textbook

Learners have to carry a large number of items to the classroom such as large textbooks, which makes the learning process less enjoyable. Through technology, learners can access their digital copy, which makes learning more convenient and impactful.

Limitations of the Textbooks and Journals

The current curriculum design uses physical versions of journals and articles. However, the introduction of new technological input will ensure that more effective, useful and applicable materials will be accessed, thereby making the learning process more successful. With technology, all learning styles will be recognized and addressed, resulting in increased success rates of the proposed technology.

Summary of Findings

As previously highlighted, the current state of nursing education experiences a shortage of innovative, modernized, and advanced input that will help in the achievement of the desirable outcomes. The current nursing education curriculum relies on the printed materials, resulting in a situation that disadvantages learners with different learning abilities. Printed materials could contribute to positive learning and practice outcomes, whereby; learners acquire the basic knowledge and obtain practical knowledge on the environments they will be working in future. Although traditional methods also promote nursing students to develop critical thinking skills they would be more effective when integrated with technology. Therefore, to improve the already positive outcomes of traditional learning and teaching methods, the faculty should consider integrating technology into current learning process.

By integrating technology in nursing education, educators can optimize the learning environment increasing the efficacy, performance, clinical reasoning, and knowledge retention of nursing students.  The use of technology in nursing education using solutions such as the Laerdal Medical system will help the students to meet their learning needs through the provision of a variety of resources that will make the learning process more effective. Technologically based learning processes offer learners evidence-based learning activities, which in turn contribute to the development of critical thinking skills, empowerment, and improves competence of learners. Technology-based learning also considers all learning styles and avails learning materials and methods, which support the attainment of positive outcomes.

Collaboration with Stakeholders

The effectiveness of collaboration and cohesion among stakeholders will also determine the outcome success of the proposed project. Collaboration will ensure that the stakeholders play their roles effectively through collaboration, communication, and teamwork. For collaboration and cohesion among stakeholders, the implementation team should meet all stakeholders and help them understand their roles in the project, the purpose of the project and the period within which to achieve these outcomes.

Clear communication throughout the project needs will be critical for its success. The implementation tem can ensure frequent communication by organizing for regular meetings among stakeholders. When the stakeholders first meet, initially, the team should present the results of the stakeholder survey, demonstrating the current state of the learning and highlight the long-term targeted changes. This way, the team will collaboratively be able to identify the need gap before allowing stakeholders to share input on the strategies to employ to attain  short term and long term positive learning outcomes.  Each team member will contribute their perspectives on the current practices, the skills needed and the requirements that the current technology needs to possess for the achievement of the project goals. Each team member must provide their expert opinion on the pros and cons of the project and the expected challenges so that the team can develop effective solutions beforehand.


The administration’s main role is to execute the bureaucratic processes that will contribute to the achievement of the desirable outcomes. They are therefore involved in determining the expected budget and allocating resources to different departments that will be involved in the project. They will facilitate the training of staff training to enhance their capacity to train students on how to use the technology. They are also supposed to look for ways that will ensure the continued productivity of the team throughout the transition, reducing the likelihood of ineffectiveness of the project. Despite the expected high demand for resources in the initial stages, the administration must identify strategies to ensure that the long-term application of the proposed changes will bring positive outcomes and reduce the overall costs it would incur with the old system. It can attain this objective by voting on important issues to ensure that it only prioritizes processes that directly improve organizational outcomes, performance, and support student goals.

Nurse Educators

The main role of nurse educators in the project is to share knowledge and information that will guide the implementation of proposed changes; taking into account the time needed to successfully implement the project and decreasing the likelihood of resistance to change. Training for the nursing educators needs to be intensive and extensive and must cover the different aspects of the project, so that the educators can become more knowledgeable, competent and in a position to achieve the expected outcomes. Support also needs to be readily available for the educators whenever they need it, given that it will take some time before they become fully competent in using the technology as expected.

The implementation team should ensure that the IT specialists train nurse educators how to access the standardized teaching and learning materials available on the proposed technology, and how to make the most out of it. With readily available curriculums, nurse educators should be able to offer standardized lessons that will positively influence learners’ outcomes.


The main role played of learners in the gap analysis is to provide insights on the effectiveness of the current activities and the changes that they would desire so that the learning processes can be more effective. The main concern for the learners is the learning curve to achieve post-implementation, and how they stand to benefit. The management should inform them of the costs they will incur to actualize the implementation of the proposed changes and technology-based learning will contribute to the achievement of learning goals. The author expects that younger learners will be more open to the proposed changes compared to older learners, and thus, there should be a middle ground to consider different learners and their preferences. The provision of ample training and the support from IT support teams will ensure that the learners will be more open to the proposed changes, making technology an important part of the learning process.

The nurse faculty should conduct a review of the resources required and those that will be available to them to understand the expected processes and how they can overcome any challenges during the transition and in the learning process. The management should inform them of the flexibility and convenience of using technology in learning will provide them with, hence making them more open to the use of the proposed technologies. Through providing the learners with the expected benefits and costs, they will be likelier to vote for the implementation of the changes, resulting in overall positive outcomes in the process.

Information Technology Specialists

The role played by the ITs is offering insights on the technological aspects of the proposed changes and the benefits drawn from the change. Their main concern is to find out how usable and compatible the technology is to the current technology, and the changes that would make it more usable for the students going forward. For example, they should consider whether the proposed technology is interoperable with Microsoft and Mac platforms that majority of the students use. The information technology specialists should also offer training to the different stakeholders to ensure that they will be in a position to use and navigate the platform once implemented

Staff Developers

The staff developers’ role in the implementation of the suggested changes is to provide the necessary insights that will help in the creation of cohesion and collaboration between nurse educators in their quest to meet educational goals. The staff developers will undergo mandatory training on how to use the proposed technology aligning it with the needs of other stakeholders. The management must provide adequate resources to facilitate ta successful training, making it possible to apply and achieve the goals and outcomes of the proposed changes. The stakeholders should also be patient with staff developers as they look for ways to achieve an effective transitioning between the current and new practices, resulting in the achievement of overall outcomes. With a careful consideration of the costs and benefits incurred, the staff developers will most likely consider the proposed project to not only attain organizational goals, but also help learners and educators attain their goals.

Force Field Analysis (D)

Table 3: Organizational Readiness for Curriculum Proposal

Forces FOR

curriculum proposal

  Curriculum proposal Forces AGAINST curriculum proposal
Learning Organizational culture Integrating Laerdal Medical Platform

the Community Health Nursing curriculum

Virtual Simulation Technology Proposal Essay example




  Time consuming and requires a significant amount of resources
Promotes clinical reasoning and knowledge retention     High Implementation and maintenance costs
Standardized  course content     Requires a lot of sacrifice and involvement to ensure that the technology meets standards of accreditation, goals and objectives of the nursing program curricula, and students/learners’ needs.


Organizational Factors

Internal Organizational Factors

Internal factors that may hinder implementation are; increased budgetary costs and limited human resource. The proposed curriculum change requires high quality technological resources. Apart from acquisition, there are additional implementation and maintenance costs related to skilled human resource (IT specialists), training, and continuous evaluation that the organization will incur during the transition. Another challenge to implementation relates to inadequate nurse educators to specialize as super-users who will later train other faculty members or be instructors and facilitators to nursing students Virtual Simulation Technology Proposal Essay example.

External Organizational Factors

Numerous institutions of higher learning provide nursing programs and purpose to scale the quality of their programs higher. The stiff competition in the academia industry purposes to attract the best students who want to pursue nursing as a profession as well as to build a good reputation both nationally and internationally. By integrating Laerdal Medical Platform in nursing education, nursing students will have high levels of clinical reasoning and knowledge retention. The technology promotes the acquisition of communication skills, decision-making skills, and nursing skills. This guarantees learners’ preparedness to manage high level and critical situations using evidence-based solutions in clinical practice.

Secondly, since the accreditation of nursing curriculums forms a significant aspect of nursing education, it will be important that the Commission on the Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) accredit the curriculum. Accreditation advances the quality of nursing education and ensures an up-to-date curriculum with current advances in healthcare and nursing. The studying resources and solutions offered by Laerdal Medical platform meet CCNE requirements for accreditation. As a result, its content can be held to a common quality standard.

Forces for Integration

  • Learning organizational Culture: There are external and internal organizational factors, which may either promote or hinder   the implementation of the proposed curriculum. An internal factor that may promote implementation of the proposed curriculum is the organizational culture. Organizational culture describes the vision, mission, goals, and objectives of an organization. It includes a system of shared beliefs, values, and assumption that guide the interactions and behaviors within an organization. Initially, the program was integrated within a complex and challenging organizational culture that combined traditional teaching, research, and service needs of academia with the requirements of professional practice. However, today, the organization has embraced a learning culture that encourages change and continuous transformation. Nurse faculty leaders have guiding philosophies, flexible values, and beliefs they utilize to act and decide when requesting for additional resources.

Challenges to Integration

  • Culture change (Resistance to change): generally, nurses get used to specific routines, roles, and responsibilities based on their scope of training and practice. They familiarize and get comfortable in the environments they work in. Nurse educators  who have been using other teaching methods and resources might  have a difficult time  learning and embracing this new technology hence hesitant to transition to a new teaching  resource and method. Learners used to transitional and other teaching methods may also resist the transition due to unfamiliarity and the effort required to learn the new technology Virtual Simulation Technology Proposal Essay example. Collaboration for a smooth transition may particularly be worse if the management fails to engage both stakeholders (educators and learners) in the entire transitioning phase.
  • Transitioning: With the introduction of any changes within an organization, there must be challenges in transitioning, especially among key stakeholders directly impacted by the proposed change. In this case, there is a high likelihood that old learners and educators will be disinterested in the proposed changes thus more likely to resist.
  • Organizational obligations: institutions of higher learning have a legal obligation to its stakeholders particularly to the learners.  They must ensure that learners attain their educational goals by implementing effective teaching and learning methods and providing resources that support the same. A transition to new teaching and learning strategies can be met with challenges such as inadequate resources and time.

Change Theory (D2)

A well-planned change, according to Bakari, Hunjra & Niazi (2017) is “a intentional, deliberative, and collaborative action that results in changes with the support of a change agent.” Due to technology advancements, nursing practice and nursing education will undoubtedly change. Since various issues may develop throughout the implementation and transitioning period, having a theoretical framework as a guide will ensure that the implementation team addresses all elements and collaboration among stakeholders.

Change Theory: Lewin’s Force Field Model

According to Bakari, Hunjra & Niazi (2017), the Kurt Lewin’s change theory there are three stages that an organization must successfully traverse before a major change becomes part of the organization’s culture. The three phases of are unfreezing (recognizing the need for change), movement (initiating change after assessing the forces for and against change), and refreezing (returning to the frozen state) (when changes are integrated and evaluated).

Justification of Change Theory

  • Unfreezing: For successful implementation of a course-wide technological upgrade, it is critical for the team to break away from previous patterns (Bakari, Hunjra & Niazi, 2017). Unfreezing old habits is necessary for the modernization, advancement, and enhancement of the current curricular framework and infrastructure. Bakari, Hunjra & Niazi (2017) for example, assert that stagnation of a current system will not result in better results unless a significant shift in nursing practice occurs as a consequence of technological improvements.
  • Movement: The movement stage is the most appropriate to manage opposition. The implementation team should start with sharing information about the proposed technology and allow other stakeholders such as the nurse educator provide evidence-based practice data and strategic progress towards the adoption of the new change to the rest of the stakeholders (Bakari, Hunjra & Niazi, 2017). Throughout this stage, the project team and key stakeholders will need to empower employees at all levels of the organization and adhere to the vision of the planned change. Working together and addressing the need for change, as well the potential benefits, is critical for the progress of the project. There should also be an explanation on how this new curricular technology update would considerably enhance the educational quality and student experience at the institution, for example, might result in years of accreditation in the future.
  • Refreezing: The refreezing phase of Lewin’s Change Theory is the penultimate step. This is the level at which change is integrated, implemented, and then evaluated (Bakari, Hunjra & Niazi, 2017). It is vital to provide constructive criticism and words of encouragement to those who may be touched throughout this period in order to ensure proper implementation. Due to the curricular transition, everyone in the company should understand that the ultimate goal is to enhance the overall infrastructure and quality of education, as well as to improve the student experience and promote academic achievement.

Potential Resistance and Barriers to Technology

  • Resistance: As previously said, nurses get used to their daily chores and job obligations with time. All nurses, whether they work at the bedside or in a managerial position, find it difficult to adapt to new situations. Nurse educators who have been teaching the same curriculum for years may be apprehensive to make the switch since Laerdal Medical is a new technology that most learners and students are unfamiliar with. Nursing educators may worry that the curricular technology revolution is endangering the practice of their profession and that they are losing their autonomy in terms of course instruction. If the affected parties perceive that the management failed to include them in the integration and implementation of the new curricula, they might demonstrate opposition. It is important that all stakeholders who will be touched by the change participate in the discussion and collaborative efforts. The same outcome will apply to when the management will fail to provide the right evidence-based facts and truthful information regarding the change. information must be transparent and properly presented to all parties so that they are all aware of what they should expect as a consequence of the change in order to guarantee that all parties are on board and supportive of the change.
  • Barriers: During and post-implementation, a major barrier is an inability to provide sufficient resources that support the project’s sustainability. Budgetary and administrative responsibilities of the institution may hinder the promise of curricular technology transformation and function as a hurdle to its implementation. Another potential obstacle is the adverse sentiments toward technology in nursing education held by more experienced nurse educators and nursing learners alike. It is unlikely that stakeholders will automatically support the proposal. However, lack of support from the management may worsen difficulties in implementing the proposed technology. As previously mentioned, management and administration are in charge of the institution’s bureaucratic chores; if they consider that the change will result in waste of resources, the management can delay or avoid the change.

Plans to Implement Change Theory

An integrated effort will be required to include a technology adjustment to “The Role of the BSN Nurse in Promoting Community Health” into the curriculum. Ultimately, the goal and vision of this project, along with the driving force behind the interprofessional team, will be to enhance the student learning experience while simultaneously improving the entire infrastructure of the course. Listed below are the plans for bringing about the change in question:

Step 1: Determine the areas of weakness that currently exist and the need for curriculum enhancement. The nurse educator will do a needs-assessment and gap analysis in order to establish where there is a deficiency in the current course material. The nurse educator will conduct a literature review in order to gather reliable data to use to illustrate the use and effectiveness of the curricular technology shift in the classroom Virtual Simulation Technology Proposal Essay example.

Step 2: Obtain approval from the appropriate authorities. The nurse educator will schedule a meeting with administration in order to provide outcomes and research on the benefits of incorporating new technology into the curriculum. Following that, administration will collaborate closely with the nurse educator and advise her on the best course to take in order to keep the new project as simple as possible.

Step 3: Form a team of experts. In collaboration with administration, the nurse educator and other stakeholders will identify which disciplines and stakeholders will be most useful to the interprofessional team and will make the most significant contributions to it. When it comes to technological change, the nurse educator and administration will be on the lookout for people who can set an example and bring new and innovative ideas to the table.

Step 4:  Schedule/ Plan meetings: The nurse educator will work with the new team members to schedule meetings and determine meeting locations. In the course of their various roles, the implementation team will require that all stakeholders all team members maintain their responsibility. All team members will participate in a discussion on their concerns, thoughts, and ideas surrounding technological development. Participants will share their own points of view, ideas, brainstorming session outcomes, concerns, solutions, and goals at the first meeting of a project team. It will be the nurse educator’s responsibility to ensure that the assigned stakeholder documents, distributes, and submits meeting minutes.

Step 5: Introduce the participants to the curricular technology transition plan and explain how it works. In order to integrate the proposed technology in the current curriculum, the administration will oversee and advise the nurse educator on how to standardize and simplify the process. Additional consultations with key stakeholders on the new shift and future training for each profession will be place as part of this process. After the interprofessional team has reached agreement on the goals, objectives, and strategy, the staff development will put together a training program for the staff to follow.

Step 6: Bring it to the attention of the administration for approval. The interprofessional team will attend and take part in presenting the plan for the new curricular technology to the institution’s upper level administration. Each team member will present their findings and explain how they connect to the curriculum reform, as well as how they could benefit and enhance the current curriculum infrastructure, throughout the meeting.

Step 8: On a regular basis, conduct employee education/training. The staff developer and nurse educator will plan education and training days for the institution after the administration approves adjustments to the curriculum. These sessions will include presentations of outcomes obtained prior to the technology transition, discussions of new changes that will occur, and a virtual playground for the institution to practice utilizing the new platform before the technological move takes place.

Step 9: The nurse educator will utilize surveys to evaluate the effectiveness of the new technology upgrade. The nurse educator in order to have a better understanding of the needs of the curricular technology change and to alter it as needed may quantify the outcomes of the surveys.

Step 10: It is necessary to get technology training on an annual basis. It will be the nurse educator and staff developer’s responsibility to establish and administer an annual education and training program for the new technology. In order to determine what is working and what is not, they will visit the institution to see where there is potential for improvement. According to Lewin, this is the process of refreezing the system.

Conclusion (E)

Explanation of Proposal and Needs Gap

This proposal purposes to improve the learning experiences and outcomes of nursing students pursuing community health nursing by integrating technology in their nursing curriculum. Previously, the program primarily embraced traditional teaching methods more. However, the integration of Laerdal Medical will augment learning to improve learners clinical reasoning, nursing skills, and knowledge retention.

Importance and Impact of Proposal

According to Frith & Clark (2013), educating nurses has presented challenges to nurse educators, the federal government, health administrators, and learners to ensure that students get the right education standards that meet safety and quality of clinical practice. Nurse instructors have obligations to learners. They must ensure that they nurture a favorable and safe environment, and utilization of standard teaching methods that will encourage intellectual growth.

Implementing the Laerdal Medical platform will provide stakeholders with streamlined, standardized, and more effective ways to access learning resources and facilitate the learning process. One of the advantages of using this technology is that it provides access to evidence-based learning materials, hence providing the learners with the most recent, verified, and approved material. Secondly, technology offers a standardized curriculum, which ensures that different users can understand it and get the desirable outcomes Virtual Simulation Technology Proposal Essay example. According to Frith & Clark (2013), learners can also control how they  acquire and retain knowledge, while develop clinical reasoning skills.




Bakari, H., Hunjra, A. I., & Niazi, G. S. K. (2017). How does authentic leadership influence planned organizational change? The role of employees’ perceptions: Integration of theory of planned behavior and Lewin’s three step model. Journal of Change Management17(2), 155–187.

Bradshaw, M., Hultquist, B., & Hagler, D. (2020). Innovative teaching strategies in nursing and related health professions (8th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Chen, F., Leng, Y., Ge, J., Wang, D., Li, C., Chen, B., & Sun, Z. (2020). Effectiveness of virtual reality in nursing education: Meta-analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(9).

Conklin, S., & Bove, L. A. (2021). Using change management as an innovative approach to learning management system. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration24(2), 1–11.

Díaz, D. A., Anderson, M., Hill, P. P., Quelly, S. B., Clark, K., & Lynn, M. (2021). Comparison of clinical options: High-fidelity manikin-based and virtual simulation. Nurse Educator, 46(3), 149–153.

Foronda, C., & Bauman, E. B. (2014). Strategies to incorporate virtual simulation in nurse education. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 10(8), 412–418.

Frith, K. H., & Clark, D. J. (2013). Distance education in nursing (3rd ed.). Springer Publishing Company.

McFarlan, S., O’Brien, D., & Simmons, E. (2019). Nurse-leader collaborative improvement project: Improving patient experience in the emergency department. Journal of Emergency Nursing45(2), 137–143.

Padilha, J.M., Machado, P.P., Ribeiro, A., Ramos, J., & Costa, P. (2019). Clinical virtual simulation in nursing education: Randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 21(3).

Shin H., Rim, D., Kim, H., Park, S., & Shon S. (2019). Educational characteristics of virtual simulation in nursing: An integrative review. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 37, 18-28.

Turrise, S. L., Thompson, C. E., & Hepler, M. (2020). Virtual simulation: Comparing critical thinking and satisfaction in RN-BSN students. Clinical Simulation in Nursing46, 57–61. Virtual Simulation Technology Proposal Essay example



Table 1
Virtual Simulation Technology Proposal Essay example
First author (Pub year) Title Purpose Context Findings Relevance Strength of evidence
Chen (2020) “Effectiveness of virtual reality in nursing education: Meta-analysis” The researchers evaluated the effectiveness of VR in nursing education in the following areas: knowledge, skills, satisfaction, confidence, and performance time. The researchers conducted a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of VR in nursing education based using articles from the  Cochrane methodology and searched for an electronic literature search using the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL  The researchers found in 12 studies, with 821 participants, selected for the final analysis. The study demonstrated how virtual reality  impacts outcomes in satisfaction, knowledge, performance time, skills, and  confidence Level of Evidence: I


Strengths: -high reliability and validity

-low risk of bias due to  heterogeneity of  processes


-the researchers  only  included studies published in English

-Some of the studies that were incorporated did dot capture the research processes.

Shin (2019) “Educational characteristics of virtual simulation in nursing: An integrative review” To describe the educational characteristics of virtual simulation in nursing education The researchers used Whittemore and Knafl’s (2005) integrative review method to search for studies in PubMed, Medline, and CINAHL. 40 studies met the inclusion criteria The researchers identified the general and virtual-specific characteristics of virtual simulation. Educational effects of virtual simulation were attained via the integration of virtual and general simulation strategies to promote learner engagement. -The article recommends virtual simulation might as an effective educational strategy to increase learner engagement.

-the researchers recommend designing virtual simulation  using the following characteristic presence, immersion, and affordance

Level of Evidence: I



Strengths: high fidelity process to identify and select articles (high validity)

–several articles were reviewed which increases the  reliability of the findings


Weaknesses: most of the studies reviewed failed to address ethical considerations

–using  different methods  to collect, analyze and evaluate data  can result in  bias,  inaccuracy, and lack of rigor


Padilha (2019) “Clinical virtual simulation in nursing education: Randomized controlled trial” To evaluate the influence of clinical virtual simulation on the knowledge retention, clinical reasoning, self-efficacy, and satisfaction among learning experiences of nursing students. A Randomized control trial carried out with 42 Portuguese nursing students between March and May 2017, Nursing School of Porto in Portugal. Post intervention, the experimental group had more improvements   in knowledge and two months later, demonstrated higher satisfaction in learning. There was however o perceived  differences in self-efficacy Virtual Simulation Technology Proposal Essay example

The study evaluates effective outcomes in learning (knowledge retention, self-efficacy, learning satisfaction, and clinical reasoning) and learning satisfaction with virtual simulation.

Level of Evidence: II


Strengths: -the researchers used a RCT design  which guarantees high reliability

-the findings of the study  support the implementation of virtual reality in nursing education



–the study was carried out in a single context  with 2nd year nursing students on one course  and one body system

-There was a short follow up time  to evaluate  long-term knowledge retention

Turrise (2020) “Virtual simulation: Comparing critical thinking and satisfaction in RN-BSN students” To determine the effectiveness of using DCEs to improve critical thinking in nursing       Level of Evidence: III


-the researchers used a randomized controlled design. Randomization decreases selection bias, and balances the intervention and control groups

-the findings support the integration of virtual simulation in nursing education


Weaknesses-the researchers used convenience sampling

-the researchers used a small sample size which  negatively influences the heterogeneity of the findings

Diaz (2021) “Comparison of clinical options: High-fidelity manikin-based and virtual simulation” To compare the outcomes in learning  content from   computer-based/ virtual versus manikin based simulation The researchers used convenience sampling to recruit 400 BSN students   from a large university in the southeastern United States. The researchers found no significant differences in knowledge between the simulation groups.


The study demonstrated the impact of virtual education on the outcomes of knowledge acquisition, time-on-task, and clinical practice. Level of Evidence: III


Strengths: the researchers used a quasi-experimental design and obtained institutional review board



–The researchers used convenience sampling

–the researchers administered posttests too early(within one week) which is not ideal with capturing



Table 2: Curriculum Technology Need-Gap Analysis

Current Curriculum


Desired Curriculum Technology Need-Gap Action Steps to Meet the Need-Gap
Textbook and printed journal articles Zoom for education virtual meetings, webinars, conferences, and messaging. Zoom for education training for entire institution and learners. 6.      Purchase Zoom for Education software

7.      Information Technology Specialist training

8.      Institution wide training

9.      Learner training

10.   Annual zoom for education trainings for institution

Textbook and printed journal articles Laerdal Medical platform for evidence- based learning through virtual simulations, test banks, flipped classroom features, blended learning, and valuable study resources Laerdal Medical platform products and training

Need for simulations for real life experiences in safe environment.

Does not foster interdisciplinary team collaboration

Does not promote critical thinking.

6.      Purchase Laerdal Medical Information Technology Specialist training

7.      Institution wide training

8.      Learner training

9.      Annual Laerdal Medical platform trainings for institution




Table 3: Force-Field Analysis

Forces FOR

curriculum proposal

  Curriculum proposal Forces AGAINST curriculum proposal
Learning Organizational culture Integrating Laerdal Medical Platform

the Community Health Nursing curriculum




  Time consuming and requires a significant amount of resources
Promotes clinical reasoning and knowledge retention     High Implementation and maintenance costs
Standardized  course content

Virtual Simulation Technology Proposal Essay example

    Requires a lot of sacrifice and involvement to ensure that the technology meets standards of accreditation, goals and objectives of the nursing program curricula, and students/learners’ needs.



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