Posted: January 1st, 2023
Nursing just like any other profession is guided by theories that are formed by predecessors. These theories are very useful and helpful in the line of duty. Nursing theories define what nursing is, describe what nurses are to do, and provide goals and outcomes of care for the patients.
The middle-range nursing theory just like grand theories amongst others provides a number of benefits to nurses in different departments or specializations. Most nursing students, clinical researchers, and registered nurses usually refer to nursing theories often for guidelines and case studies. The middle-range theory offers enough space for scholars to criticize and analyze some concepts in the grand theory.
Being acquitted with nursing theories is very valuable to the nursing fraternity as it contains undisputed information about the best practices in nursing. In this article, we want to expand on the middle-range nursing theory and how it is used.
Middle-range nursing theory is defined as the nursing theory that focuses on more definitive subjects. This theory is less than grand nursing theories. Most of the people who develop this theory refer more to the grand nursing theory because of the additional contribution to the already recorded research. The scholars tend to add the new experiences faced continuously.
A middle-range nursing theory is used by nursing students because it provided an angle view of reality to the main concepts. The theory also gives more specific generalized concepts and this helps the nurses in their day-to-day duties.
There are three major types of middle-range theories.
In this type, each descriptive theory describes a phenomenon that is surrounded by one concept. When a middle-range descriptive theory describes a concept, it automatically contains several common finding that is relatable. They are categorized using given parameters.
These explanatory theories are based on two or more theories giving the basis of the relationship. This explanation theory expands further to the relationship between the two concepts. These theories are derived from scholarly research using quantitative design, tested, and proven beyond a shadow of a doubt. One good example of the middle-range explanation theory is Watson’s theory of humans.
There is a slight difference between predictive theories and middle-range explanatory theirs. The major difference is in predictive theory the concept is more predictable and more precise, unlike the explanatory concept. This concept enlightens further the relation from one concept to the other or more. One good example is Orlando’s theory of the deliberative nursing process.
Middle-range nursing theory is important for students of nursing because it provides a middle reality view and more specifically generalized practice areas for the nurses.
It also provides the nurses with concrete ideas which are limited but very useful for them. Some of the middle-range theory of nursing examples are:
Grand nursing theories are most of the time regarded as very detailed and always regarded as very complex. The theories under grand might require thorough research to attain the in-depth results intended on a particular concept. The transcultural nursing theory is an example of a grand nursing theory.
On the contrary, middle-range nursing theories are typically less theoretical work as compared to grand nursing theories due to the absolute nature of the concept. The middle-range nursing theories tend to elaborate more on grand nursing theories by clearer elaboration.
Middle-range nursing theories are more all-inclusive and systematic. They are more descriptive as compared to grand theories where the concepts are brought about in part explanation.
Middle-range theories are having a number of characteristics. Below are a number:
The middle-range theory is very instrumental in nursing practice because of the added research on the concepts. The scholars who add to the already established grand theories through thorough research have been very instrumental to the nursing fraternity.
Nurses face the adverse situation on daily basis in their line of duty. A middle-range theory like the theory of self-efficacy is very useful in the nursing practice. This theory reminds the nurses of their own self-care, self–monitoring, and self-management. This theory promotes good self-care for patients and psychological health and other chronically ill patients. Below are some of the middle-range nursing theories developed by some scholars.
Another middle-range theory in nursing practice is modeling and role-modeling theory. This theory is based on the ideology that all are meant to want to live a comfortably happy and meaningful life. This is literally true. When plans that focus on the strength of our clients are taken into consideration we help them become more alive thereby living their lives fully and enjoyable. (Erickson, 2001, p. 309).
The theory of group power within an organization is a very effective example of middle-range theories that are in use in the nursing carrier and was researched by Christina Sieloff. This theory emphasizes togetherness and working as a team amongst the nurses’ personnel. It is proved beyond doubt that working together yields good results and they tend to be the supporting system to each other.
This theory improves competency, and teamwork and above all promotes the organization’s excellence in service delivery among nurses. This theory is another word for harmony in a work environment.
The dictionary definition of empathy is the ability to be able to understand, comprehend and share the feelings of another.
Just like this middle-range theory of empathy, nurses are expected to show understanding and affection to the patients. This theory is based on the fact that human beings have emotions. It further alludes that empathy comprises perceptions, self-awareness, and enlightenment, it is a self-esteem booster, promotes understanding, and is also a source of learning as it opens platforms for sharing.
Empathy also offers a therapeutic and mutual understanding between the patient and the healthcare provider. This gives the patient a sense of belonging. The health care providers could use words such as I would do the same if I was in your position: I totally understand how you feel; You must be feeling so bad; I can feel the pain in how you explain it; I understand how it feels; such kind words not only, make the patient feel better but creates a band between the patient and the nurse.
The theory of interpersonal relationships in nursing is a descriptive middle-range theory. This theory puts much emphasis on the interrelationship between a person and her environment around. There are four major components of this theory that are applicable to nurses on the day to day basis.
Environmental needs are the forces outside the being of a person but still play an important role in his life. Nurses are required to use their interpersonal skills to manage the patient’s state of emotion. The skills such as nursing leadership would come in handy as the patient would want to hear a rather affirmative voice.
Listening is also a skill that is highly recommended, in their sorry state patients need a listening ear, someone to listen to them this somehow gives them hope. Negotiation and a positive attitude amongst others are some of the interpersonal skills nurses must possess.
Dictionary describes chronic sorrow or pain as the periodic recurrence of permanent, pervasive sadness or other grief-related feelings associated with a significant loss
The theory of chronic sorrow is usefully considered for analyzing how patients cope with the pain that comes with chronic illnesses. Nurses are vetted in this as caregivers. Chronic sorrow theory urges nurses to view it as a normal occurrence and should not succumb to the pressure that comes with it and the emotional breakdown accompanied.
Nurses are encouraged to come up with coping tactics for the affected and offer support. In this way, nurses are able to be the source of comfort. In the cases of the loss of a loved one nurses are to be the source of encouragement to the believer.
Nurses are expected to offer support and explain that that is just a normal phenomenon. In chronic illnesses that are accompanied by excess pain. The nurses offer an explanation to the patients that the kind of pain they are experiencing is just normal and they should not think that it is something out of the ordinary.
Middle-range nursing theories are developed from the grand theories. Comparing grand theory vs middle range theories nursing grand theory tend to cover a discipline in a wider perspective as compared to a middle range which focuses more on expounding on a concept. Nurses and scholars have continuously influenced the grand concept from time to time. The middle-range theories have been improved by both scholars and nurses as the centuries unfold.
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