Posted: July 26th, 2016
In instrumental conditioning, what is the distinction between negative reinforcement and punishment?
a. There is no difference. They are two words for the same thing.
b. Negative reinforcement creates a preference for negative results, while punishment teaches people to avoid negative results.
c. Negative reinforcement occurs when a negative outcome is avoided, while punishment occurs when an action causes a negative outcome.
d. Negative reinforcement can occur when a stimulus is positive, and punishment occurs when a stimulus is painful.
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