Posted: January 21st, 2023

Environmental Factors and Health Promotion Presentation: Accident Prevention and Safety Promotion for Parents and Caregivers of Infants

Environmental Factors and Health Promotion Presentation: Accident Prevention and Safety Promotion for Parents and Caregivers of Infants




Water Pollution/Contamination

  • A child dies every 90 seconds from water related illnesses
  • Stunted growth
  • Chronic malnutrition
  • 160 million children struggles with growth issues due water pollution and related infections

It is estimated that 160 million children struggles with chronic malnutrition and stunted growth due to water pollution issues. In addition, (2019) states that every 90 seconds a child dies from water related illness across the world. Water contamination occurs due to uncontrolled pollution. Environmental Factors and Health Promotion Presentation: Accident Prevention and Safety Promotion for Parents and Caregivers of Infants


Water contamination is caused by domestic waste disposal to the surface water. These practices together with other human activities affects the quality of domestic water



Effects of Water Contamination on infants

  • Stomach illnesses
  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Headaches
  • Cramps
  • Vomiting

Children are fond of interacting with environment in a different manner compared to adults. Also children take more water due to their body weights and needs and this exposes them to water related issues.  Critical effects top infants face due to exposes to contaminated water includes crumps, diarrhea, vomiting, headaches, and nausea. Health issues related to exposures to contaminated water may range from mild effects to severe ill health and in some cause death (Mannava, 2019) Environmental Factors and Health Promotion Presentation: Accident Prevention and Safety Promotion for Parents and Caregivers of Infants.




Three important water contaminants

  • Lead
  • Nitrates
  • Manganese

Hydration is a sure way that helps infants to remain healthy and to acquire essential minerals. Quality of water is important and helps in keeping infants healthy. However, the increasing issues facing environment including rusted pipes, groundwater pollution, and indiscriminate dumping of waters causes extreme domestic water contamination (Evans, 2020).

  • Effects of High Levels Exposure
  • Convulsions
  • Coma
  • Organ failure
  • Neurological damage
  • Death
  • Effects of Low Levels Exposure
  • Inhibits growth
  • Learning disabilities
  • Hearing loss

Lead toxicity in water is a harmful substance to infants’ health. The effects depends on the degree of concentration and exposure duration. Waterborne routes contributes to over 20% of infants’ exposure which is achieved through consuming contaminated water (Mannava, 2019). Infants and children are vulnerable to lead which in high levels causes convulsions, organ failure, coma, major neurological damage and death. In low concentrations the exposure results into learning disabilities, stunted growth and hearing loss. (Palo, 2021). Environmental Factors and Health Promotion Presentation: Accident Prevention and Safety Promotion for Parents and Caregivers of Infants


Effects of Nitrate on Infants

  • Methamoglonemia
  • Irritability
  • Heart defects
  • Lethargic

Water contaminated with nitrates poses adverse effects to infants. For instance, the exposures causes methemoglobinemia which causes infants to develop blue skin color commonly known as ‘blue babies’. This mostly occurs to infants being fed using infant formula that has to be mixed with water (Palo, 2021). In addition, infants with downs syndrome may develop heart defects due to exposure to nitrates.


Effects of Manganese on Infants

  • Poor behavioral performance
  • Verbal challenges
  • Low IQ levels


Manganese is a vital metal in water and food pollution. The metal gets into drinking water from soil and rocks. It poses major issues to infants when in high levels including affecting their levels of IQ, behavioral performance and also their verbal abilities (Evans, 2020).




Ways of Ensuring Safe Domestic Drinking Water

  • Boil drinking water
  • Chlorination of water treatment
  • Enhance hygiene at home to reduce water contamination
  • Use filter for tap water
  • Test children for water related illnesses
  • Embrace cold water in making children formula feed
  • Ensure plumbing is done using the right piping materials

Water is a major source of illnesses for children. For better care parents and caregivers should be ensure water given to infants or used in cleaning their utensils and equipment’s is clean. This can be enhanced through boiling of drinking water, chlorination, using filters, and also testing children for any water related illnesses (Jacob, 2021).



Evidence-Based Research on Safe Water to make Infant Formula

  • Fill a clean kettle with water
  • Make water reach the bubbling boil
  • Let it boil for more than a minute
  • Take it out from the heat
  • Cool the water to body temperature

Boiling water is the safest way of removing contaminants. Boiling the water eliminates all germs such as viruses and bacteria that may be present in tap water from leaking or old pipes (Jacob, 2021). Before making baby formula ensure the water cools to body temperature.

  • Preparing infant formula requires cool and safe water
  • Keep the home clean
  • Clean the infant regularly
  • Deworm the infants at the right time
  • Use clean utensils when feeding infants
  • Ensure septic is functioning well
  • Avoid overuse of chemicals and fertilizers for home gardens
  • Dispose household’s wastes properly

Water contamination at home can be prevented through ensuring debris and waster are well disposed. In addition, domestic septic should be checked annually for its effectiveness. Also, home gardens should be free from excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides or chemicals that may get their way to drinking water (Evans, 2020).


Evans S, Zajac L. (2020). We can and we must do better to protect children from drinking water contaminants. Pediatr Res. 2020 Oct;88(4):529-532. doi: 10.1038/s41390-020-1062-8. Epub 2020 Jul 15. PMID: 32668440; PMCID: PMC7529971.

  • The resources is effective ion showing ways that water can be treated and prevented from contamination for infants and children use. It also highlights major contaminants and their effects to infants and children. Environmental Factors and Health Promotion Presentation: Accident Prevention and Safety Promotion for Parents and Caregivers of Infants

Jacob B, Kazaura M. (2021). Access to Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: A Cross-Sectional Study among the Maasai in Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Mar 1;104(4):1535-1539. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0134. PMID: 33646976; PMCID: PMC8045632.

  • The resources explores the Maasai community in Tanzania and the issues that face due to lack of clean water. The environmental factor of water pollution is a major aspect in this article and attempts to demonstrate the vulnerability of caregivers and infants due water pollution.

Palo SK, Kanungo S, Samal M, Priyadarshini S, Sahoo D, Pati S. (2021). Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WaSH) practices and morbidity status in a rural community: findings from a cross-sectional study in Odisha, India. J Prev Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 30;62(2):E392-E398. doi: 10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2021.62.2.1503. PMID: 34604579; PMCID: PMC8451357.

  • The resource demonstrates how Odisha communities in India are able to adopt to changes in water quality and addresses in detail the aspects of infant morbidity with regard to water pollution.

Mannava P, Murray JC, Kim R, Sobel HL. (2019). Status of water, sanitation and hygiene services for childbirth and newborn care in eight countries in East Asia and the Pacific. J Glob Health. 9(2):020430. doi: 10.7189/jogh.09.020430. PMID: 31893033; PMCID: PMC6925970.

  • This is a national level resources that demonstrates the nature of water and sanitation across several countries. The resource aims at depicting the causes of mortality, ill-health and preventive measures that can be used by caregivers in helping infants from adverse health challenges from waterborne causes. (2019). Water Crises.

  • The resource show critical data about water crises across the world and the effects water pollution has on children. The resource is helpful in demonstrating the needs to enhance hygiene practices at home and around households.

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