Posted: January 21st, 2023

asthma vs pneumonia essays

asthma vs pneumonia essays

Brian is a 7-year-old boy who presents to the primary care office with his mother. His mom has noticed that Brian has been coughing frequently and seems to have shortness of breath at times. She reports that Brian had a “cold” with a low grade fever and runny nose about 2 weeks ago and the symptoms seem to appear after the cold.

On physical examination, Brian appears in moderate respiratory distress, with suprasternal and intercostal retractions. His vital signs include a temperature of 100 A°F, a respiratory rate of 32 breaths per minute, heart rate of 120 beats per minute, and pulse oximetry of 95% on room air. Lung exam is notable for diffuse symmetrical expiratory wheezes. His nasal mucosa is erythematous with boggy turbinates and clear mucus. The remainder of the exam is unremarkable.

1. Based on this case, discuss the differences in the pathophysiology  for asthma vs pneumonia.  Include your thougths as to the diagnosis for this case asthma vs pneumonia essays.

Post your initial response by Wednesday at midnight. Respond to one student by Sunday at midnight. Both responses must be a minimum of 150 words, scholarly written, APA formatted, and referenced. A minimum of 2 references are required (other than your text). Refer to grading rubric for online discussion.


    • Asthma and pneumonia are different respiratory conditions that cause similar symptoms making it tricky for the health care provider to diagnose. Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous condition characterized by spontaneous bronchoconstriction accompanied by widespread but variable airflow obstruction (McAlinden et al, 2019). The airway epithelial exposure to antigens activate innate and adaptive immune systems to stimulate chronic airway inflammation (Gaines & Gavrilova, 2020). Wheezing with asthma is due to inflammation of the airways, mucus production, and reversible tightening of the smooth muscles in the airway walls (Stenberg-Hammar et al., 2017). Brian is presenting many of symptoms of asthma, including fast breathing, retractions and wheezing.My thoughts on this case is that Brian has pneumonia. He had a upper respiratory infection 2 weeks ago and continues to have unresolved symptoms. Aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions is the most common route of lower respiratory infection (Huether et al, 2020). His low grade fever today and moderate respiratory distress needs further evaluation with a chest x-ray to confirm diagnosis. Pathophysiology, biomarkers, and treatments for asthma endotypes, PaediatricHeuther, S., McCance, K., and Brashers, V.  (2020).  UnderstandingMcAlinden, K. D., Deshpande, D. A., Ghavami, S., Xenaki, D., Sohal, S. S., Oliver, B. G.,Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology (Online), 60(5), 541-553.Principi, N., & Esposito, S. (2017). Biomarkers in Pediatric Community-Acquiredmore1 UnreadUnread5 ViewsViews asthma vs pneumonia essays
    • 1 RepliesReplies
    • View profile card for Amandeep Kaur
    • Last post February 19 at 11:02 PM by Amandeep Kaur
    • Pneumonia. International Journal of Molecular Sciences18(2), 447.
    • doi:
    • Sharma, P. (2019). Autophagy activation in asthma airways remodeling. American
    • Pathophysiology (7th ed.).  Elsevier.
    • Respiratory Reviews, Volume 36 118-127.
    • Gans, M. D., Gavrilova, T. (2020). Understanding the immunology of asthma:
    • References
    • Pneumonia is infection and inflammation in the terminal airways and alveoli (Huether et al, 2020). Community-acquired pneumonia is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or a combination of these infectious agents (Principi & Esposito, 2017). Pneumonia can be viral, bacterial or atypical depending on the causative agent.  The type of pneumonia affects the onset and symptom presentation.
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    • Melissa Morgan posted Feb 17, 2021 10:43 PM
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    • Pneumonia and asthma in children can present with the same symptoms. Pneumonia is common in children and they can get it from viruses, bacterial, or other atypical microorganisms (Huether, McCance & Brashers, 2020). Pneumonia is caused by an infection and inflammation in the terminal airways and alveoli, and it causes destruction of the ciliated epithelium of the distal airway with sloughing of cellular material and initiation of an inflammatory response (Huether, McCance & Brashers, 2020). Pneumonia can also trigger asthma, and “most acute wheezing episodes in children with asthma are associated with viral respiratory tract infection” (Huether, McCance & Brashers, 2020, p. 706). The clinical manifestations of bacterial pneumonia include fever, shortness of breath, cough, increased respiratory rate, and decreased oxygen saturation (Huether, McCance & Brashers, 2020). Community-acquired pneumonia in children is quite common in the world, and unfortunately “remains the major single cause of death in children outside the neonatal period” (Andronikou, 2017, p. 1).Brian has signs and symptoms of viral pneumonia that may have triggered an asthma attack. Brian should have sputum and blood cultures, and possibly a chest x-ray, to determine treatment and to prevent unnecessary use of antibiotics. The diagnosis of pneumonia is based mainly on clinical manifestations, which includes a thorough respiratory assessment. The World Health Organization guidelines state that severe pneumonia is diagnosed when there is coughing and fast breathing (Hassen, 2019). While chest radiographs improve the accuracy of the diagnosis, it is still open to human error and interpretation (Hassen, 2019). Nurses should caution physicians against prescribing antibiotics until they know the organism that is causing the infection.Andronikou, S. (2017). Imaging community-acquired pneumonia in children. Pediatric Radiology47(11), 1390–1391., S., McCance, K., and Brashers, V.  (2020).  Understanding Pathophysiology (7th ed.).  Elsevierless1 UnreadUnread4 Views Views asthma vs pneumonia essays
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    • View profile card for Cassie Fritzinger
    • Last post February 19 at 8:23 PM by Cassie Fritzinger
    • Hassen, M., Toma, A., Tesfay, M., Degafu, E., Bekele, S., Ayalew, F., Gedefaw, A., & Tadesse, B. T. (2019). Radiologic Diagnosis and Hospitalization among Children with Severe Community Acquired Pneumonia: A Prospective Cohort Study. BioMed Research International, 1–8.


    • References
    • Asthma is a chronic inflammation that is often underdiagnosed and undertreated especially in children (Huether, McCance & Brashers, 2020). It is characterized by bronchial hyperreactivity and reversible airflow obstruction that is usually in response to an allergen (Huether, McCance & Brashers, 2020). Children have smaller airways, so inflammation, bronchospasm, and mucus production can lead to hypoxemia, which can be quite severe. It is unknown at this point if Brian has asthma. However, according to our textbook, a previous viral infection could damage the immune system, and then bacterial pneumonia could develop (Huether, McCance & Brashers, 2020). As stated earlier, this could lead to the development of asthma, which signs and symptoms include wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and tachypnea; all of which Brian currently has.
    • Module 5 Discussion Post – The Respiratory SystemSubscribed
    • Gisselle Mustiga posted Feb 16, 2021 11:03 PM
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    • Asthma occurs when the inflamed airways react to external triggers such as dust, smoke, and pollen, causing the airway to produce excess mucus and narrow, a process known as bronchoconstriction. This makes it difficult for the patient to breathe. The abnormal narrowing of the airways results from epithelial damage, muscle damage, and edema. Epithelial damage is associated with airway hyperresponsiveness and sensitivity as it causes loss of barrier function, thus allowing entry of foreign substances such as allergens (Kaufman, 2016). Also, the damages expose the sensory nerves to allergens causing reflex neural effects. The increased mucus production results from the mucous secreting cells’ multiplication in the airways and expansion of the mucous glands.Considering the pathophysiology and signs and symptoms of both diseases, Brian is likely to be suffering from asthma. Asthma patients produce clear and white mucus, while pneumonia patients tend to produce yellow, green, or brown colored mucus (Huether et al. 2020). Only asthma patients have expiratory wheezes, which is one of the signs of Brian’s condition.ReferencesJain, V., & Bhardwaj, A. (2018). Pneumonia pathology. StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. less1 UnreadUnread6 Views Views asthma vs pneumonia essays
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    • View profile card for Jazmin Jerez-Rivera
    • Last post February 19 at 8:01 PM by Jazmin Jerez-Rivera
    • Kaufman, G. (2017). Asthma: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Nursing Standard (through 2013)26(5), 48.
    • Huether, S. E., McCance, K. L. & Brashers, V. L. (2020). Understanding Pathophysiology 7th ed. Elsevier Mosby.
    • Pneumonia, on the other hand, results from the breakdown of an individual’s natural defenses, thus allowing germs to invade the lungs and multiply causing infection. However, it should be noted that pneumonia can only occur if there are exceedingly virulent microbes and large amounts of bacteria. Large numbers of virulent microbes overwhelm the macrophages, which help remove infection agents, resulting in systemic defense mechanisms (Jain & Bhardwaj, 2018). The defense mechanisms include infiltration of the white blood cells, inflammation, and immune response activation. Notably, some bacteria and microbes may adhere to the tracheal lining environments making it difficult to clear them away from the airway. This causes the alveoli to be filled with pus and fluid, making it hard for them to breathe. asthma vs pneumonia essays
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    • Sheryl Dixon posted Feb 17, 2021 11:02 PM
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    • The main muscle of inspiration is the diaphragm contraction and downward motion of the diaphragm causes a negative pressure in the chest, which draws in air. Other than the diaphragm there are accessory muscles of inspiration (Pectoralis major and minor, serratus anterior, sternocleidomastoid, sclene muscles, levatores costarum, serratus posterior superior).Expiration is largely passive .Simply by relaxing ,the chest springs back into shape ,and expiration can occur without any muscle action(Goldberg,2018).Pneumonia is an infection that can occur in one or both of the lungs. It causes inflammation in the air sacs, not the bronchioles. Pneumonia can cause the lungs to fill with fluid, making breathing painful and difficult. It is treatable. While asthma and pneumonia can cause many similar symptoms, they are different diseases with different treatment and care approaches (Ryan, 2019). Pneumonia is an infection and inflammation in the terminal airways and alveoli. Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children, particularly in developing countries (Huether, McCance & Brashers, 2020). Goldberg, S. (2018).Clinical physiology made ridiculously simple.MedmasterRyan, A. (2019). What are asthma and pneumonia? Retrieved from less1 UnreadUnread6 ViewsViews
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    • View profile card for Dennies Jones
    • Last post February 19 at 4:58 PM by Dennies Jones
    • Waseem, M. (2020). Pediatric Pneumonia Differential Diagnoses. Retrieved from
    • Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. & Brashers, V.L. (2020). Understanding Pathophysiology 7th ed. Elsevier asthma vs pneumonia essays

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