Posted: June 1st, 2018

6. Describe the pathophysiology that leads to the long-term (chronic) complications of diabetes

  1. 6. Describe the pathophysiology that leads to the long-term (chronic) complications of diabetes



                      Cardiovascular




                      Cerebrovascular




                      Peripheral Vascular





                      Retinopathy


Sudden vision loss, rupture retina blood vessels,


                      Nephropathy

Disease because the kidney’s filtration mechanism is stressed and thickening in glomerulus




                      Neuropathy

Affects the distal portions of the nerves, especially the nerves of the lower extremities (peripheral neuropathy)






  1. 7. Diabetes management: BS control through Diet, Exercise, and Medications
  2. a. What is the frequency for monitoring blood sugar levels?





  1. b. How often should Simon monitor his blood sugar and how often you he be seen by his physician?










  1. What is Simon’s target FBS range and HgbA1C range?







  1. What modifications in diet and teaching does Simon need to achieve optimal BS













  1. Simon wrote down what he usually eats for dinner.


3 oz lean steak or 2 oz chicken

1 cup milk

1 cup steamed broccoli

1 cup winter squash

3 oz baked potato

1 bowl (2 cups) of ice cream (28 g of CHO per serving)

1 can regular soda (45 g of CHO per serving/can)




  1. Count the total CHO in his dinner meal.





  1. Now modify Simon’s meal to total 60-75 g of CHO (for dinner).





  1. Considering the symptoms Simon is experiencing, how will you proceed to teach him about exercise? What exercises are appropriate for Simon?






  1. Explain to Simon the patient teaching rules for diabetic home management regarding:








  • Foot care







  • Physician visits







  • Prevention of complications

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